Yalta, Massandra, Nikita
Yalta - the most well-known city of Crimea and, certainly, one of the most picturesque and interesting cities of the world. Its wonderful transformation from a fishing small village in a fashionable elite resort, as at the fantastic Cinderella, has occurred during a uniform instant in 1838 (when it has received the city status), thanks to love. But only not love of one prince, and love of several generations of an imperial surname.
Public. Appeal and a glamour of Yalta at all have no any logical explanation and are not reduced at all to the sum of any favorable climatic and other indicators. Yalta – a fashionable resort. The population of Yalta about hundred thousand persons, and visitors for a year happens to one million! It is the best possibility and at people to look, and itself to show. All who happens in Crimea, it is obligatory though per day, but will call in and here.
a city Lay-out. Whence you would not admire Yalta, it is really reliable is protected kilometre height by mountains of the Main ridge: to the north and the northwest Ah-Petrinsky jajloj; to the northeast Nikitsky jajloj. Mountains form semicircular almost steep wall at which foot on abrupt slopes cascades of houses climb up, is frequent very entertaining and courageous on architecture and engineering decisions. After all here never was typical designing!
Builders always respected a local relief, and the city is not separable from a difficult mountain amphitheatre. However, in its complexity there is a harmony: 2 river valleys divide 3 hills. The small river Derekojka (Fast) flows in the east by road service station and a monument to Lenin, and Wuchang-sou (vodopadnaja) in the west by a cinema of "Spartak" and hotel "Oreanda".
In the centre over a city the hill of Darsan (to it the rope-way from Quay conducts) rises, it passes in a ridge of Iograf, a spur Ah-Petrinsky jajly. From the east Yalta rises on the Polykurovsky hill, behind it, and Massandra already begins with the West – the Tea hill, behind it Livadija, and over it the most beautiful line of mountains from a teeth Ah-petri (1234, forming a graceful huge crown, through a mountain Mogabi cone (804), to cape Ah-todor, far leaving in the sea.
East line of mountains not so is effective outwardly, but is important for protection against northeast winds: a spur Nikitsky jajly with top of Avinda (1473, gradually going down to the sea, comes to an end with cape Martjan.
Between capes far the Yalta gulf presses in a land towards to a city. And here the gulf, two rivers, three hills - all it converges to Quay. This main place. Moving across Yalta, you constantly appear here. Highways pass hardly above in parallel it that is why direct absolutely upwards along river valleys.
The Basic volume of passenger traffic is necessary in Yalta on a trolley bus №1, it just unites both river valleys. Trolley buses №2 and №3 continue it on the east to suburbs Massandry and Nikita. To microdistricts on hills there are city buses and fixed-route taxis.
The Basic foot stream moves from Massandry (along the street Drazhinsky), from an enormous hotel complex "Yalta" through Quay to Seaside park and, naturally, back.
Most-most. it is unconditional, it Quay (officially quay of a name of Lenin, in prostrechi - "nabka"). It is not declared by an architecture monument. But motley crowd of people happy with a life, you see, a rarity unusual. The quay is framed by palm trees, a continuous train of attractions, bars, cafe and restaurants. In architecture the most improbable styles are weaved.
The Quay is framed by palm trees, a continuous train of attractions, bars, cafe and restaurants. N edavnjaja facing by the polished red granite and svetloserym porfiritom underlines its overall objective: Yalta - a place for those who has become successful.
The Monument to Lenin among palm trees - the most popular place of meetings of youth. The warm and perfectly polished granite draws any ekstremalov and nonconformists. The author - the Ukrainian sculptor P.P.Jatsyno is opened in 1954. Pavel Jatsyna - the founder of infamous group “Red mould”, to the sculptor of the relation has no, and in native Yalta (we will tell in secret) silently and peacefully lives in the street Shiryaev, holding the address in careful secret. And to walk, of course, loves on Quay.
Nearby there are buildings of the Main post office, the International sea club, restaurant "МакДональдс" and uncountable constructions of attractions.
From Quay on the east the remarkable kind on the Polykurovsky hill, first of all thanks to light of a gold dome of a belltower of a cathedral of John Zlatousta opens. From quay to a belltower it is possible to pass on Roosevelt's streets, Ignatenko, Tolstoy. John Zlatousta's temple and its belltower has been erected in 1832-1837 under the project of the Odessa architect of G.Torichelli.
Above a temple there is a Yalta memorial cemetery where are based the founder of the Russian cinema A.Hanzhonkov, the classic of the Ukrainian poetry Stepan Rudansky (it was the city doctor of Yalta and its patron of art), the founder klimatolechenija and active tourism in Russia V.Dmitriev and others.
Below the Polykurovsky hill there passes narrow, curve, but very entertaining street Drazhinsky – the basic highway connecting the centre of Yalta with Massandrovsky park, a huge hotel complex "Yalta". Further it conducts on so-called to the bottom highway to natural boundary Magarach and the Nikitsky garden.
the Rope-way conducts from the Quay middle (over moorings for steam-ships of local lines) on a hill of Darsan. Travel absolutely short, but very dynamical and sated - necessarily take the camera and a videocamera. At the left on a lifting course pleases a look elegant orthodox St. Alexander Nevskogo's temple . On its southern facade the mosaic executed by Salviati, decorated also many buildings in Europe, for example, Parliament in London is remarkable.
To the east of a hill of Darsan on the Hill of Glory the Memorial in honour of the heroes who have fallen in days of civil and the Great Patriotic War of wars, is opened in 1967году. The author of the project P.A.Starikov, V.A.Peterburzhtsev and A.A.Popov. Eternal fire has been lighted on November, 6th, 1967 from a flame of Eternal fire on Malahovom a barrow in Sevastopol.
If to go down from it to Quay on foot that on an abrupt slope of a hill of Darsan it is possible to look on the Armenian church (1909-1014, the architect G.Ter-Mikelov under sketches of known artist Vardgesa Surenjantsa).
Nearby to the bottom station of a rope-way there is a building hotels "Tauridas" (the former "Russia"), Quay, 13. It is constructed in the end of 1875 and there was long time of the biggest and comfortable in Yalta. In 1876 seriously ill poet N.A.Nekrasov has lived in hotel about two months. Here it not only was treated, but also worked over a poem "to Whom in Russia to live well". Improbable quantity of known names are mentioned on a memorial board. The restaurant from a film "Assa" with pool in the centre and a huge glass dome far above acted in film here. In general, the building is very interesting under engineering decisions and architecture, now it reconstruct in the president-hotel.
But we will return on Quay. Over it as if the modern answer to engineers and architects of the Russian empire - a building (the model of the Ancient Greek ship is more exact) restaurant "Golden Fleece" soars, opposite to it with a huge spherical crone is allocated a plane tree of Ajsedory to which not less than 500 years - the well-known American ballerina under this majestic tree appointed meetings to poet Sergey Yesenin.
In a city garden above Quay is theatre of A.P.Chehova . In April, 1900 the Moscow Art theatre has given on this place (the building was another) eight performances, including Chekhovian "Seagull" and "Uncle Vanju".
Now all stars of Russia and Ukraine though just once yes will act for a season in a concert hall "Anniversary". Its building differs interesting modern architecture, and before it the number of monuments gradually increases. From outside the sea and Quay it a little vysokovatye both disproportionate bronze Chekhov and the heroine of its story – the Lady with the doggie. There was a monument Zhvanetsky's Portfolio from the main (western) facade of a concert hall much more successfully. The spacious platform between "Anniversary" and Quay was decorated with a new colour fountain.
The Western extremity of Quay is crossed by the bridge through small river Wuchang-sou. Below it restaurant in a schooner of "Espanola", and above - a showroom of the Union of the artists, constructed directly on the bridge.
Upwards on the river there is one of brisk foot streets of Yalta - Pushkin on which it is located a lot of interesting, including the Yalta historico-literary museum (street Pushkin, 5а, 32-30-65). In the summer at it the wax museum and every possible exhibitions works also. The Catholic church at small river Wuchang-sou is constructed in 1914 under the project of architects Komornitsky and Krasnov.
In Seaside park of J.Gagarin, are a monument And. To P.Chekhov , established in 1953, and a monument And. M.Gorkomu opened in 1956 Maxim Gorky is represented such what it, 23th years, for the first time has visited in Crimea during the travel on the south of Russia. Later Bitter time and again came here on treatment.
The Former palace of the emir Bukhara in Yalta (above Seaside park, to the West from Quay) is erected in 1907-1911 architect Tarasovym in Mauritian style, now it is one of cases of sanatorium "Yalta" of the Black Sea fleet of Russia.
the Yalta reserve is created for protection of the unique mountain woods giving to Southern coast curative air. In 7 kilometres above Yalta, on the east from highway the track conducts to the falls basis Wuchang-sou (Flying water), the highest in Crimea. From height about 100 metres water streams, powerful enough after thawing of snow in mountains or plentiful downpours, but hardly appreciable during a drought break. More low (on a line Yalta – Bakhchisarai) this known place of a general attraction by a season of 2005 is opened big Theatre of sea animals "Water area" with three water scenes where dolphins, fur seals and other animals act. The program is prepared in St.-Petersburg.
Special appeal the Glade of fairy tales "(39-64-02, a museum of a sculpture and floristics at bottom of picturesque mountain Krestovoj (Stavri) possesses" . Here it is located big (biggest of private in the country) a zoo "Fairy tale", which fairly name «a planet of tender animals». It it is really good, cheerful and nourishing – visitors with pleasure feed with their specially bought entertainments.
Hardly the attention the Alpine architecture and German accuracy a new building of hotel "Glade of fairy tales", the added construction of a former camping above draws.
From a camping on top Stavri the Botkinsky track , by name of S.P.Botkina (1832 - 1889) conducts recently updated , the known doctor-therapist, the researcher and the propagandist klimatolechenija on JUBK.
At 7th kilometre of highway on Ah-petri the Shtangeevsky track also begins. It conducts to top of a rock Stavri., it is named in honour of the doctor of medicine F.T.Shtangeeva (1841-1898), created capital work about treatment of a tuberculosis of lungs in Yalta.
The Attention travelling on highway Yalta-Bakhchisarai (on 9 km) involves restaurant "Караголь" reflected in lake (578, thanks to dishes from the game, a favourite institution of secretary general L.I.Brezhnev.
Below a plateau Ah-petri under the special index it is possible to get To 2 km to to the Silver arbour, established in honour of the military builders who have paved this way in 1865-1894гг. From here, from Pendikjul (865, the grandiose kind opens: wild rocks with huge sprawling pines are boldly allocated against sea coast.
The ridge Taraktash (Comb) with grandiose dredging in a layered rock is very effective. To it the ancient Taraktashsky track conducts.
Since a season of 2004 reserve management offers tourists the route lasting many days which have united all well-known tracks (Shtangeevsky, Botkinsky, Kalendsky) and all well-known specific points.
On opposite, east entrance to Yalta, in Top Massandre there is a palace of emperor Alexander III , on beauty and comelines reminding something fantastic. From a trolleybus line to it it is possible to get to begin with not to be confused, it is simple on highway. Between the big traffic intersection to hotel "Yalta" and a car wash over highway the rock decorated with a stone imperial eagle hangs. From here upwards leaves a highway streamer. Through some kilometres among huge cedars, mamontovyh trees and cypresses palace turrets will seem.
The Massandrovsky palace one of the best architectural monuments of Southern coast of Crimea, is constructed at slopes of a mountain ridge, in the lonely place surrounded with wood. The palace history is curious. To build it have begun in 1881 by request of the successor of the governor - prince S.M.Vorontsova, but a year the prince has died later. In 1889 the Massandrovsky manor of Vorontsovyh together with not completed palace have bought for emperor Alexander III. In three years palace building has been finished, but also to Alexander III to live in it it was not necessary: in 1894 he has died in Small Livadijsky. In a Soviet period many long years this fine architectural monument was closed "object". In the imperial palace which has become by a state summer residence, heads of party and the government of the former socialist camp stopped on rest. Now the palace is one of the most popular objects of excursions (32-17-28).
The Massandrovsky park – one of the greatest on Southern coast, settles down below a trolleybus line to hotel "Yalta" and street Drazhinsky. The park is rich with exotic kinds of trees and bushes (nearby 200). It is good and that has kept vegetation natural to Juzhnoberezhja. On park are laid terrenkury for medical walking, walks on a mountain bicycle are good also. And on the West from park through territory of scientific research institute of Setchenov it is possible to get out to very original abrupt small streets of a hill of Polyhens, the Yalta memorial cemetery, Iona Zlotousta church and then to go down to the centre.
the Main plant of Association "Massandra" (on official materials and personal impressions)
World-wide well-known vinkombinat "Massandra" occupies almost each scrap of unique arable lands of the Big Yalta - after all all of them are turned to the sun. To the West from Yalta there are state farm-factory "Ливадия" earths, and to the east - state farm-factory "Gurzuf". There are also other economy - in Big Alushte and Sudaksky area. We will tell about their production in corresponding regional sections. As a whole association makes 40 grades of wines (from them 28 grades of world famous vintage wines), but association heart, is final - in suburb of Yalta.
The Main plant and the cellars hollowed in rocks in which there is a sacrament of maturing of incomparable muscats, tokaja, ports, is over Massandrovsky park.
Headquarters plant NPAO "Массандра" - the Yalta factory of vintage wines : Yalta 98650, pgt. Massandra, World street, 6.
Prince L. S.Golitsyn appointed in 1891 on a post of the main wine maker of Specific department (so management of all earths of an imperial surname) in Crimea was called and on caucasus, the decision on building of the underground factory of tunnel type first in Russia for manufacture and endurance of dining rooms and sweet wines makes. After several years of searches, studying of different areas of Crimea building has been begun in 1894 in Massandre.
By 1889 Destinies buy up some manors with vineyards and cellars: "Livadija" (at count Pototsky), "Massandra" and "Ah-danil" (at M.S.Vorontsova's successors), and also vinotorgovuju firm S.M. Vorontsova with representations in Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkov, Odessa, Simferopol and other cities.
In 1894 the known hydrogeologist Golovkinsky selects a place for the main cellar. The project was developed by architect V.N.Chagin. In 1898 building under the direction of engineer A.I.Didriha has been finished. Considering that it were the first cellars of tunnel type similar only to the best economy of France, it is possible to recognise Golitsyn's personal participation solving. Only it could convince the emperor to spend 1 million 100 thousand roubles. A result: 7 tunnels, dispersing in radiuses, in the general extent in 2 versts, capacity of all bochek to 80 thousand buckets (1 ведро=12,4 and 1 million bottles.
In the collection of wines "Massandry" put still by Golitsyn now is about one million bottles with really unique wines. The collection fund of association "Massandra" consists of 3 parts: museum, advertising-research and commercial. The museum fund represents a great value, and wines being in it are unique. In museum fund about 3 bottles from each name of wine of all years of a crop from among being in a collection are put.
ATTENTION: 2000 is recognised by especially outstanding on agroweather conditions, wines of a crop of this year will be especially valuable, as fault of crops 1994, 1975, 1968, 1966, 1962, 1950, 1938, 1937 and 1934.
The Museum fund is stored constantly. The Advertising-research fund is created for studying of changes in wines at their long storage in bottles; acquaintance of experts with processes of bottle ageing of wines; for participation in salons, auctions, exhibitions with the advertising purpose. The commercial fund is created for bottle endurance of wines not less than three years with the subsequent realisation at the peak of the organolepticheskih advantages.
Institute of grapes and wine "Magarach" (on official materials)
Magarach - the suburb of Yalta, which name were included into the name of Institute of wine growing and winemaking of "Magarach". The institute is in the centre of Yalta, in two big respectable buildings of the former Yalta man's grammar school (in it known poet Samuil Marshak, by the way, studied). And the experimental plant, a museum and a tasting complex are in natural boundary Magarach that means "the source", adjoining with the West to the Nikitsky botanical garden with which it is connected by the general history.
Many vintage wines, and also new table grades of grapes have in the name and a word "Magarach" specifying that they were born efforts and talent of local scientists.
As well as in "Massandre", in "Magarache" the original treasury - enoteka is created. In it there are bottles which has passed for 150-200 years. In total 21651 bottle of wine, including a curiosity - the Muscat pink 1836, brought in the Guinness Book of Records as the oldest wine made in Russia is stored.
Some times in enohimicheskuju laboratory were delivered heresnye yeast: in 1908, 1913 and in 1929 from different vineyards of Andalusia and during different seasons. All of them have appeared one kind. So was the leading part of these microorganisms in sherry manufacture, and then in a wild kind they is proved have been found in Armenia, Dagestan and Uzbekistan where local manufactures have been organised also. However only in Magarache till now lives and the posterity of yeast from a city the Sherry de la Frontera is well.
All these years in the Magarachsky institution preparation of experts was conducted. 19 boys from military-orphaned houses were the first pupils. Term of study by it have defined in 20 years (there is also other data – in 15). Accepted in school only competent and for a payment in 50 roubles a year at a full board Later. Have opened also the higher vinodelcheskie courses. Magarachsky scientists have prepared many experts who upon termination of study were arranged to work in private enterprises.
In 1873 on the World's fair in Vienna magarachskie Traminer, Muscats, Pino-gri have received the higher awards. It has been noticed that "these wines in other countries have no anything similar neither on tenderness of taste, nor on aroma, on a bouquet". Then - the bonus certificate as the higher difference at the International exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, a medal for red wines and "for excellent muscat wine with a fine bouquet" at the International exhibition in Chicago in 1893. Wines "Magaracha" received awards at all competitions in which participated. In a Soviet period it there were competitions within the limits of the countries of Council Economic vzaimoposhchi. But the institute is recognised by the full member and the International union of wine makers with the centre in Paris.
"Magarach" possesses the second for riches in Europe and the fourth in the world a collection of grades of grapevines. This collection began Hristianom Stevenom in the Nikitsky garden, proceeded its receivers and the Magarachsky institution any time for the South careful earths. But the bookmark of nurseries in different places of Crimea has returned a science, so to say, to sources – to Southwest Crimea. The foothill pilot farm of "Magarach" is in the Bakhchsarai area at with. Vilino, there where the river Alma runs into Black sea.
With an establishment in Crimea the Soviet power in 1923 of "Magarach" already helped to adjust manufacture of wines in union republics and continued to improve the Crimean wines. Almost all marks of the wines which are let out in Crimea, have been created with uchastem "Magaracha". In 1940 have confirmed the basic assortment massandrovskih wines, almost invariable till now.
, by the most successful and well-known hundreds new grades and grapes forms Have been deduced from them also Bastardo Magarachsky, perhaps, is. Many years scientists conducted experiences with a refined Portuguese grade of Bastardo which even in the homeland was whimsical, crops gave not every year. Vinomaterialy from it went on oblagorazhivanie the most expensive marks of port – so-called vintazh which is made about time in 5 years. Somehow Anastas Mikoyan in which submission there was a winemaking of the USSR, has tried wine from Bastardo and was surprised – why there is no such wine on a table at the Soviet worker (anyway, for leaders such drink is necessary in a considerable quantity). Scientists of institute began to complain on kapriznost and weakness of a grade. People's commissar Mikoyan not especially standing on ceremony has ordered: “Visokie vkusovie advantages – to keep, productivity – povisyt). Now of this grade do remarkable dry wine, a hard liquor of type of port, but the dessert most well-known certainly.
the Nikitsky botanical garden
In 1812 for choice djuka de Rishele is based the Imperial botanical garden. Director Hristian Steven has made its best of the South careful parks connecting the nature, history, art and a science. Initially the garden had huge nurseries and provided with saplings of the selection all south of empire.
Now in its collection more than 28 thousand plants from every corner of the globe, and in a lay-out are developed receptions of park art of the different countries. Excursions are spent on Arboretumu (meeting of plants) in the Top park and on Kaktusovoj to a greenhouse in the Bottom park. Tastings massandrovskih wines and exotic fruit offer in the Garden Museum. Here too it is possible to get rare decorative and fruit saplings. Below the concrete quay, a quite good beach and expensive hotel.
From the east the Garden is adjoined reserve by Cape Martjan with an evergreen forest from a treelike juniper and zemljanichnika melkoplodnogo. In the reserve centre the small House of creativity of Academy of sciences, now the Phytocenter is constructed. The reserve water area keeps in a natural kind sea biotsenozy JUBK. Over reserve there passes an ancient track in Ah-danil where the manor H has remained. Stevena.
To Rise to a trolleybus line we also we recommend not on asphalt, and on curve narrow small streets of ancient settlement Ah-nikita. Over streets trees of a fig, a persimmon and a pomegranate hang, Court yard are twined by grapes, on the way time and again it is possible to buy something from this – depending on a season, fresh, sushennoe or preserved.
the Nikitsky cleft - very small, but unusually "wild" picturesque gorge in steam of hundreds metres from a trolleybus line above the item Nikita. The track begins opposite to a building of Geodynamic model of Crimea, a stop "School".
Each turn of a cleft opens new landscapes, cinematographers have paid attention to it. At shooting it is easy to create illusion even long-term travel, as for example, in "Children of the captain of the Grant". Well and great storyteller Alexander Rowe in general created here miracles.
Now miracles are created by rock-climbers from many CIS countries and Europe. Skalodrom – tens rocky lines of different degree of complexity are equipped with participation of the French climbers. Lines are good that loading can be complicated gradually, and also affinity of highway, settlement, and certainly exhausting.
The cleft Flora is extremely rich and interesting, has a reserved mode, evergreen lianas of the Crimean ivy and old trees of a sweet cherry are especially magnificent.
Celebrities. In Yalta there are all celebrities, such this place. But there are some names which jaltintsy have allocated and esteem especially (on materials www.jalita.boom.ru):
Maxim Bogdanovich one of initiators of the Belarus literature. The poet suffered a tuberculosis of lungs and time and again happened in Yalta. Last time it has arrived to Crimea in 1917 g, here has written the last verses. In sanatorium "Belarus" park (Koreiz) in 1957 the monument to the poet is opened.
With 1868 on 1904 in Yalta of veins V.N.Dmitriev , the known doctor-klimatolog also worked. It has constructed the meteorological station first on Southern coast, having begun studying of environmental conditions, has developed bases klimatolechenija and treatments by grapes, was at the beginnings of tourism in Crimea.
In the Summer of 1871 the artist has lodged in Yalta Feodor Vasilev , the painter of bright talent. The moving reason was the sharp aggravation of a tuberculosis of lungs. For last two years of the short life he has written one of the best cloths "the Wet meadow", some pictures on the Crimean subjects. The artist in 1873, 23 years old has died. On street Kiev, on a place, where there was a house, in which there lived the artist (has not remained), F.A.Vasileva's bronze bust is established.
The remarkable Ukrainian poet Stepan Rudansky (1833–1873), the author of widely known song "Pov§j, вiтре, on Vkra§nu was the First city doctor of Yalta...", become national, and many other poetic products. It is known and as the translator of poetry from Ancient Greek and Russian languages on an Ukrainian language. Stepan Rudansky has made much for a city: was the initiator of creation of the city market operating and until now, has gratuitously conceded to a city a part of the site under a chink, free of charge treated the poor. Being versatily presented person, collected local folklore, participated in archeological excavations, did sketches of monuments … the Name of the poet one of city streets and a chapel of bandura players of the Yalta teacher training college carries. On the Polykurovsky memorial cemetery in 1892 the monument is established With. V.Rudanskomu.
The Most part of a life of the known Armenian composer and the conductor has passed A.A.Spendiarova in Crimea and in Ukraine: in Kakhovka he was born, in Simferopol has ended a man's grammar school, in 1901-1916 of veins and worked in Yalta (street Ekaterina's, 3); here the majority of pieces of music is created by it. On a house facade — a memorial board.
Many years of a life of the outstanding Ukrainian poetess are connected With a city-resort by Lesi of the Ukrainian . Being seriously ill, it not only was treated here, but also continued to work. In a museum that in the house on street Ekaterina's, 8, it is possible to familiarise with the exhibits telling about its stay in Crimea.
In Yalta have passed last five years of a life And. P.Chekhov . A museum in it to "the White summer residence" — a place of pilgrimage of tourists from every corner of the globe. In 1899 the convenient white house under the project of Yalta architect L.N.Shapovalova has been constructed. All time of building Chekhov with love planted on waste ground round its trees and flowers, and now a house museum is buried in verdure. Despite the serious illness, Chekhov is a lot of and fruitfully worked. Has written plays "Cherry garden" and "Three sisters", stories "the Lady with the doggie", "Bishop", "On a Christmas-tide", "Bride", the story "/in a ravine". Here the complete works are prepared for the edition.
In addition on the given theme:
Livadija, an Oreanda, the Gold beach, Kurpaty
Artek, Gurzuf and Ah-danil
Gaspra and the Swallow's nest, Koreiz, Mishor, Alupka
Simeiz, the Blue gulf, Katsiveli, Ponizovka
Foros and the West of the Big Yalta